Pre-school education aims to help children ages 2.5 to 4 years old who risk a lack of the necessary language or social skills when they are 6 years old and go to group 3 of primary school.
In the Netherlands this education is controversial. In 2015, research from a professor at the University of Applied Science in Amsterdam showed that pre-school education didn't have any effect. However, in summer 2016 researchers from Utrecht University showed that pre-school education does have an effect. Toddlers improve their vocabulary and arithmetic and have fewer deficits than those without pre-school education.
The education inspectorate recently concluded that the quality of pre-school education has improved a lot in the last five years. According to this research, 80% of the toddlers who risk a lack of language and social skills are going to pre-school. In some cities, pre-school places are also available for children who don’t risk an educational disadvantage.